FAT Partition Boot Sector

The Partition Boot Sector contains information that the file system uses to access the volume. On x86-based computers, the Master Boot Record use the Partition Boot Sector on the system partition to load the operating system kernel files.

The table describes the fields in the Partition Boot Sector for a volume formatted with the FAT file system.

Fields in Partition Boot Sector (FAT File System)

Byte Offset (in hex)

Field Length

Sample Value

Meaning

00

3 bytes

EB 3C 90

Jump instruction

03

8 bytes

MSDOS5.0

OEM Name in text

0B

25 bytes

 

BIOS Parameter Block

24

26 bytes

 

Extended BIOS Parameter Block

3E

448 bytes

 

Bootstrap code

1FE

2 bytes

0x55AA

End of sector marker

The Table describes BIOS Parameter Block and Extended BIOS Parameter Block Fields.

BIOS Parameter Block and Extended BIOS Parameter Block Fields

Byte Offset

Field Length

Sample Value

Meaning

0x0B

WORD

0x0002

Bytes per Sector. The size of a hardware sector. For most disks in use in the United States, the value of this field is 512.

0x0D

BYTE

0x08

Sectors Per Cluster. The number of sectors in a cluster. The default cluster size for a volume depends on the volume size and the file system.

0x0E

WORD

0x0100

Reserved Sectors. The number of sectors from the Partition Boot Sector to the start of the first file allocation table, including the Partition Boot Sector. The minimum value is 1. If the value is greater than 1, it means that the bootstrap code is too long to fit completely in the Partition Boot Sector.

0x10

BYTE

0x02

Number of file allocation tables (FATs). The number of copies of the file allocation table on the volume. Typically, the value of this field is 2.

0x11

WORD

0x0002

Root Entries. The total number of file name entries that can be stored in the root folder of the volume. One entry is always used as a Volume Label. Files with long filenames use up multiple entries per file. Therefore, the largest number of files in the root folder is typically 511, but you will run out of entries sooner if you use long filenames.

0x13

WORD

0x0000

Small Sectors. The number of sectors on the volume if the number fits in 16 bits (65535). For volumes larger than 65536 sectors, this field has a value of 0 and the Large Sectors field is used instead.

0x15

BYTE

0xF8

Media Type. Provides information about the media being used. A value of 0xF8 indicates a hard disk.

0x16

WORD

0xC900

Sectors per file allocation table (FAT). Number of sectors occupied by each of the file allocation tables on the volume. By using this information, together with the Number of FATs and Reserved Sectors, you can compute where the root folder begins. By using the number of entries in the root folder, you can also compute where the user data area of the volume begins.

0x18

WORD

0x3F00

Sectors per Track. The apparent disk geometry in use when the disk was low-level formatted.

0x1A

WORD

0x1000

Number of Heads. The apparent disk geometry in use when the disk was low-level formatted.

0x1C

DWORD

3F 00 00 00

Hidden Sectors. Same as the Relative Sector field in the Partition Table.

0x20

DWORD

51 42 06 00

Large Sectors. If the Small Sectors field is zero, this field contains the total number of sectors in the volume. If Small Sectors is nonzero, this field contains zero.

0x24

BYTE

0x80

Physical Disk Number. This is related to the BIOS physical disk number. Floppy drives are numbered starting with 0x00 for the A disk. Physical hard disks are numbered starting with 0x80. The value is typically 0x80 for hard disks, regardless of how many physical disk drives exist, because the value is only relevant if the device is the startup disk.

0x25

BYTE

0x00

Current Head. Not used by the FAT file system.

0x26

BYTE

0x29

Signature. Must be either 0x28 or 0x29 in order to be recognized by Windows NT.

0x27

4 bytes

CE 13 46 30

Volume Serial Number. A unique number that is created when you format the volume.

0x2B

11 bytes

NO NAME

Volume Label. This field was used to store the volume label, but the volume label is now stored as special file in the root directory.

0x36

8 bytes

FAT16

System ID. Either FAT12 or FAT16, depending on the format of the disk.

For more detailed information see resource kits on Microsoft's web site
or Microsoft Developers Network (MSDN)

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